Physical activity and immune system. Systemic enzyme therapy in prevention and treatment
Institute of Care for Mother and Child, Podolské náb?e?í 157, 147 10 Prague 4 – Podolí
Medicina Sportiva Boh. Slov. 1997, Vol. 6., No. 2, pp. 41 – 45
Besides serious infections, injuries. burns and irradiation, stress is also provoked by a strong physical tension, excessive training and heavy competition rate – factors of professional sporting activity. An important consequence of stress is on affliction of the immune system, its factors and functions, leading secondarily to a decrease of antiinfectious resistance and antitumor surveillance.
While experimental as well as medical experience indicate that regular exercise and recreation sport affects immune system and its function favourably, overtraining, and excessive strain lead to its damage with undesirable consequences. A higher sensitivity to infections is the most prominent: several small-range epidemics have been announced. The paper summarizes main information about changes in the immune system in professionals accomplishing demanding sports – marathon runners, karatists, skiers, cyclists and others. The immune cells (granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, NK) react after an early temporal mobilization with a decline in numbers as well as in functional activities. Similarly, blood levels of immunoglobulins (notably IgA) tend (after a short-time increase) to fall down, often for prolonged time period; the same applies to factors of natural immunity. As underlying mechanisms of these effects there are stress-mediated disturbances of homeostasis, overproduction of some cytokines, adhesive molecules, and toxic radicals.
Among preventive and therapeutic procedures the attention is paid mainly to combination of proteolytic enzymes. Surprisingly excellent practical results may be satisfactorily explained by selective interferences of enzymes with the pathophysiologic mechanisms of inflammation and by their complex immunomodulatory (immunonormalizing) effects.